The results of the study showed that communication was directed more frequently toward the deviant than toward the other confederates and that the deviant was less likely than other confederates to be treated favourably.
Conflict explanations assume that the wealthy and powerful use the legal system to protect their own interests and to keep the poor and racial minorities subservient.
He found that the skeletons that he studied mostly had low foreheads and protruding jaws. In this theory, laws are instruments of oppression: Contrary to that assumption, some people prefer to compare themselves with others who are dissimilar often those who are relatively disadvantagedbecause doing so allows the individuals who are making the comparison to enhance their self-concept.
The Italian school of criminology contends that biological factors may contribute to crime and deviance. For example, drivers on freeways often travel a little faster than the official speed limit. It is also in this tradition that the radical-empirical approach of Ethnomethodology emerges from the work of Harold Garfinkel.
These focal concerns include a taste for trouble, toughness, cleverness, and excitement.
Attachment refers to how much we feel loyal to these institutions and care about the opinions of people in them, such as our parents and teachers. He stated that little could be done to cure born criminals because their characteristics were biologically inherited.
The drastic social changes of that period, such as industrializationurbanizationand the rise of democratic states caused particularly Western thinkers to become aware of society. Code of the street: This theory asks why people refrain from deviant or criminal behavior, instead of why people commit deviant or criminal behavior, according to Travis Hirschi.
Jock Younganother Marxist writer, presented the idea that the modern world did not approve of diversity, but was not afraid of social conflict. This theory also states that the powerful define crime. When Pearson and Goring researched skeletons on their own they tested many more and found that the bone structure had no relevance in deviant behavior.
Feminism, from a social conflict perspective, focuses on gender inequality and links sexuality to the domination of women by men. The figure below suggests that sexual assaults are relatively rare on college campuses.
Containment depends on the individuals ability to separate inner and outer controls for normative behavior.
Whereas innovation is likely to involve breaking rules to achieve normative objectives e. Further deviation with resentment and hostility towards punishers. Without this "control", deviant behavior would happen more often. People might also find dissimilarity useful because it allows them to contrast their own position with that of a rival or enemy.
This fact makes it more likely that they will commit new offenses.
It discusses the relationships between socialization, social controls, and behavior. This findings suggests that it is crime that drives away businesses and residents who have more money to safer areas, which then concentrates poverty and crime in that area. He believed that criminals were a product of earlier genetic forms.
This theory holds that behaviors are deviant only when society labels them as deviant. Recidivism rates in the U. Another factor that significantly increases the odds of convicts returning to prison is their return to their former neighborhoods.
Some groups have norms that encourage originality and innovation, and others are themselves involved in challenging the status quo. What causes deviance and deviant behavior?
There are four major sociological theories that seek to answer this question. Sociological Theories of Deviance Sociologists have developed theories of deviance that follow the three main theoretical perspectives.
Here, we will review these theories, using examples. With strain theory, Merton provides an explanation mostly for deviance based on. Merton typology of deviance was based on two criteria: (1) a person’s motivations or adherence to cultural goals; (2) a person’s belief in how to attain her goals.
According to Merton, there are five types of deviance based upon these criteria: conformity, innovation, ritualism, retreatism and rebellion. Consensus based theories part 1 – Functionalism; Social control’ theory; Strain theory How I would’ve answered A level sociology paper 3: crime and deviance with theory and methods, June | ReviseSociology.
Pingback: Merton's Strain Theory of Deviance The Marxist Perspective on The Family Functionalism - An Introduction. The primary contribution of anomie theory is its ability to explain many forms of deviance.
The theory is also sociological in its emphasis on the role of social forces in creating deviance. On the negative side, anomie theory has been criticized for its generality. Critics note the theory's lack of statements concerning the process of learning deviance, including the internal motivators for deviance.
Labeling theory is one of the most important approaches to understanding deviant and criminal behavior within sociology. It begins with the assumption that no act is intrinsically criminal.Deviance based on five sociological theories